Article metadata vol. (12) # (1) March 2017

Data base 2017

Biodegradation of triphenylmethane and monoterpene compounds by fungal laccases in
different reaction systems

In the present study, three fungal laccases were included from Trametes versicolor, as a commercial enzyme, partial purified homemade enzymes from Trametess hirsuta (DSMZ No. 5072) and Botrytis cinerea (DSMZ No. 877) and were obtained from previous studies. The stability of the enzymes was investigated in different reaction systems include; aqueous, α- Pinene / tert-butanol (PT) and co solvent (10% tert-butanol). The highest stability of the three fungal laccases during the incubation was observed at 30 ºC, and Trametas laccases displayed higher energy inactivation in all examined systems compared to laccase from B. cinerea. Decolorization of 20 µM of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 (CBBG), as a model of recalcitrant triphenylmethane textile dyes, by 0.6 u/ml of the three enzymes in the presence or absence of six mediators was determined. The best decolorization was revealed in the presence of 0.5 mM HBT, as mediator, and higher decolorization of 68.35 % was observed when laccase from T. versicolor was used. Moreover, biotransformation of 250 µM α-pinene, as a monoterpene compound, by 10 u/ml of laccases in different systems in the presence of 40 mM HBT was investigated. The major transformation ratio of α-pinene to verbenol is 1.76% obtained by laccase from T. versicolor in PT system, while the transformation ratio to verbenone is 1.36% performed by laccase from B. cinerea in TB system


Trametes versicolor, Trametess hirsuta (DSMZ No. 5072), Botrytis cinerea (DSMZ No. 877), reaction systems, fungal laccases Keywords
 Ali A.  Taha Author name

Dept. of Applied Sciences / University of Technology / Republic of Iraq

E- mail:

Genetic algorithm filtering for speaker identification system

In the present study, a modified MFCC-based method was used for speaker identification application. The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of using a dynamic filter bank system on the system performance in terms of speaker identification. Dynamic systems, simply, are able to modify their values in accordance with the speech database used. In our proposed system, the values of filter components (center frequencies and bandwidths) would change at each iteration until the best set of filter components is reached. Genetic algorithm will be used to modify the filter components and each new population of the GA will represent a new set of the filter bank channels. Results showed that the system performance will improve as a new set of filter components produced by the genetic algorithm.


MFCC, GMM, Speaker Identification, Genetic Algorithm Keywords
Ziad M. Abood, Tariq A. Hassan and Eman K. Ibrahim Author name

College of Education / University of Al-Mustansiriyah  / Baghdad / Republic of Iraq

E –mail:

Estimate habitat salinity of Chinese white dolphin using MODIS Data

A small group of Chinese white dolphin was discovered in eastern Taiwan Strait. Distribution and behaviors of this small group are threatened by changing in marine salt concentration. Therefore, this study was aimed to estimate the marine salt concentration in east of Taiwan Strait using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data by applying genetic algorithm combining operation tree method and linear regression method. Genetic algorithm combining operation tree is regarded as data mining method that consists of genetic algorithm and operation tree, is to discover relationship in non-linear system. linear regression is traditional regression method often used to express dependent variable change. In this case study, genetic algorithm combining operation tree and linear regression described above combining with MODIS seven bands were employed, then all the results are verified with actual marine salt data of Taiwan Strait. The results indicated that genetic algorithm combining operation tree method performs more favorably than do the linear regression method, where it exhibited higher correlation coefficients and fewer errors.


Chinese white dolphin, marine salt, moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer Keywords
Basmah M. Al- Abbadi Author name
National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension / Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
E –mail:
Estimation of salinity by genetic algorithm combining with operation tree using sensor data

The main purpose of this paper was to apply a genetic algorithm combining operation tree method to monitor the salinity of important strait in west Pacific Ocean using remote sensing data. Genetic algorithm combining operation tree is a type of evolutionary algorithm that simultaneously optimizes functions and their associated coefficients, and is used to automatically discover the relationships among nonlinear systems. Based on genetic algorithms, the relationships between input and output can be expressed as parse trees. In this case study genetic algorithm combining operation tree is used to construct the relationship between the actual salinity data of strait and the of spectral parameters of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor data. The results showed that the genetic algorithm combining operation tree model has high efficient performance (R=92% for training set and 60% for testing set)


genetic algorithm combining operation tree, salinity, strait, remote sensing Keywords
Basmah M. Al- Abbadi (1) and Li Chen (2) Author name
(1) National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension / Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (2) Dept. of Civil Engineering / College of Architecture and Design/ Chung Hua University E-mail: Affiliation
Diagnosis of colon tumor tissue using fuzzy logic

In the present paper, samples representing medical images normal and abnormal (tumor) of colon tissues were studied, from glass slides with H&E (Hematoxylin and eosin) stain. Digital images were taken using a magnifying optical microscope amount of 400X, and be stored in a computer by a digital camera. The application of the image processing were on these images, and calculation of (Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix -GLCM) statistics (Homogeneity, Correlation, Contrast and Energy) were made to diagnose between normal and abnormal samples, through the statistics measurement and the application the theory of Fuzzy logic by MATLAB. The study results showed that the application of dark logic of program results showed high discrimination between samples between normal and abnormal images. After the application, this program on testing samples normal and abnormal (tumor) of colon tissues for diagnosis.


Medical imaging, fuzzy logic, colon tissue, Diagnosis Keywords
Ziad M. Abood, Zahra S. Dheef and Lamyaa M. Kadhim Author name
College of Education / University of Al-Mustansiriyah / Baghdad / Republic of Iraq
E –mail:
Enzymatic study of adenosine deaminase (ADA) on blood from patients with breast cancer before and after radiotherapy

In this study, blood samples were taken from patients before and after radiotherapy. At the end of each week serum ADA levels were calculated for each samples. 62 Iraqi breast cancer women patients were included in this study. For control purposes, 43 healthy women were examined. There were combined damaging effects caused by cancer, chemotherapy and radiotherapy on the immune system of the patients. These damages were manifested through the significant reduction of ADA levels in serum of patients with breast cancer. All these findings suggested possible negative effects of radiotherapy on the immune system of the patients.


adenosine deaminase (ADA), radiotherapy. Keywords
Samira A. Finteil, Eman W. Hussen and Qabas I. Abdulmajeed Author name
Dept. of Radio Isotopes / Nuclear Applications & Researches Directorate / Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission / Republic of Iraq
E –mail:
Detection of ESBLs in Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from different clinical cases by using CHROM agar ESBLs

Forty (40) isolates of were obtained out off (200) isolates collected from different cases including wounds, burns, stool, urinary tract infection urine, respiratory tract infection and blood samples. The isolates showed different sensitivity to antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to (Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Cefixime) (100) %. Most bacteria isolates were resistant to Tobramycin (87.5) %, Trimethoprim, Norfloxacin (75) % each of them, Gentamycin (62.5) %, Ciprofoxacin  (60)% and Pefloxacin (52.5)%, while these isolates showed less resistance to Ampicillin  (35) % and Imipenem (12.5)%. The result of detection ESBLs by using of ESBL CHROMagar showed (37) isolates (92.5) % were ESBLs positive.  While only (3) isolates (7.5) % were ESBLs negative. The analysis of virulence factors showed 18 (45%) isolates were produced Biofilm, 13 (32.5%) isolates were Lipase activity, and 7 (17.5%) isolates showed ability to produce protease.


Acinetobacter baumannii, ESBL , chromogenic agar             i Keywords

Rana M. Abdullah Al- Shwaikh and Rasha Z. T. Ahmed



Author name
Dept. of Biology / College of Education for Pure Sciences – Ibn- Al Haitham / University of Baghdad / Republic of Iraq Affiliation

The effect of different concentrations of the peel and gel of Aloe Vera plant leaves extract in the decimation of Indian meal moth adults Plodia interpunctella

The study dealt with the impact of different concentrations of the aqueous Aloe Vera leaves’ husk and jelly on the Plodia interpunctella’ adults after (24, 48) hrs. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the Aloe Vera leaves’ husk was superior to the jelly in its activity. The higher significant difference among the treated insects was at concentration of (100 % ) , the perdition in insects amounted to ( 60 % , 90 % ) after (24, 48 ) hours of treating respectively. The least significant difference among the treated insects was at ( 25 % ) after (24, 48) hours of treating and amounted to  (5% , 25 % ) respectively.

Aloe Vera leaves, Indian mealmoth Keywords


Sundus H. Alwan


Author name

Dept. of Biology/ College of Education / University of Samarra / Republic of Iraq



The embryonic development and histological structure of pectin oculi in Mallard Anas platyrhynchos


The study of the development and histological structure of pectin in Mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) showed that it was as well as emergence in embryo of 6 days incubation period that arises over the top of the optic nerve, and completed configured in embryo of 23-day incubation period. It was a folded back type and the numbers of folds were ranging between 10-12 folds. It consisted of multiple formats pigmentary cells and epithelial cells with blood vessels.


pectin oculi, Mallard Anas platyrhynchos, embryonic development




Tahreer Sh. Ghazi and Mohammed A.H. Ghali


Author name

Dept. of Biology/ College of Sciences for Women / University of Baghdad / Republic of Iraq



The acute toxicity of 2,4-dichiorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide on water Flea females Daphnia magna and the effect of chronic toxicity in building life tables

The present research had studied the  acute and chronic toxic effects of herbicide 2,4- D to zooplankton, which belongs to the  order (Cladocera) on  a kind Daphnia magna (water flea) by finding a  lethal concentration for killing 50% of  the population ( LC50) and chronic effect on building the life table  of the animal, and the amount of change in its life cycle as a result of exposure. Using several concentrations for studying acute effects (1.8,3.6,5.4,7.2,9,18,27,36,45,54,63,72,81) mg L for 24 and 48 hours of exposure, the LC50 values were (32.35 and 10.71) mg /l, respectively. But in chronic exposure, experiments used concentrations (3.6,4.5,5.4 mg / L. The results showed the herbicide 2,4-D had toxic effect on the animal’s life cycle and the low rate of expected future life with increasing concentrations used and showed significant differences between the treatment and control

2,4-dichiorophenoxyacetic acid, toxicity, Daphnia magna Keywords


Adel H. Talib and Baraa M. Thaker


Author name

Dept. of Biology/ College of Sciences for Women / University of Baghdad /Republic of Iraq



Length -weight relationship of crustacean species Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879) at Al-Suwaira fish farm- Al-Kut province

The length – weight relationship of Macrobrachium  rosenbergii (de Man, 1879), have been studieds samples were collected from Al-Sauwaira fish farm (at Al-Kut province) during the period from April to December/ 2008. The values of the length-weight relationship determined by using the following formula: W = aLb The results of the present study revealed that the (b) values ranged from 1.924 during April-2008 which represented the lowest value and 2.848 during December 2008 as a highest value. On the other hand, the (a) values were ranged between 1.072 and 1.987 at lowest and highest values respectively. The result declear a clear suitable length-weight relationship and the condition factor (K). The result showed clear changes in K-value during the different months with range of 0.759 during December to 2.633 during July. The absolute and relative fecundity of the animal under investigation have been also studied to show the productive index and the results declear that the rage of absolute fecundity were 578-952 at length 4.9-6.3 cm, weight  (1.2-3.03) gm and during August and April/ 2008 respectively. The relative fecundity were 321-537 eggs at 4.9-6.3 cm, 1.2-3.01 gm and during October and July respectively. T-test were used and showed a significant difference for the above relationships

Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Length -weight Keywords


Maysaloon L. Al- Doori, Nibrass L. Al- Doori and Hussein A.M. Dauod


Author name

Dept. of Biology / College of Education for Pure Sciences (Ibn-Al-Haitham) / University of Baghdad / Republic of Iraq



A comparative study for some characteristics between two species of okra Abelmoschus esculentus L. under Al-Najaf province conditions

An experiment was conducted at the private farm in Al-Najaf province during the growing season 2014 – 2015 to study two varieties of okra local (Al-Hasinwia) and new exported in Iraq (Clemson spineless) on growth and yield parameters of okra. Experiment was adopted in Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with one factor (two variety). Means were compared by Least Significant Deference (L.S.D) test at probability level 0.05. Results showed that the foreign species had significantly increased vegetative parameters (plant height, number of total leaves and shoot dry) and content of total soluble carbohydrates, percentage of nitrogen and phosphors in leaves and fruits and the potassium in fruit compared with local variety which gave the least values. Also the foreign species gave the best quality for fruit and the highest number and weight of fruit ( 13.88fruit.plant-1  and 55.33gm) more than that gave the highest yield per plant(2840.84gm)compared with the local variety which gave the lowest yield  (2227.62gm) and the lowest number and weight of fruit(11.40fruit. plant-1 and 52.67gm) respectively

okra Abelmoschus, characters, Al-Najaf province Keywords


Jamal A. Abbass, Mansoor A. Aboohanah and Jafar N.A. Jabbar


Author name

Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape Design / Faculty of Agriculture / University of Kufa / Republic of Iraq



Diuresis crystals classification for diagnosis of kidney diseases using artificial neural network (ANN)

The classification of crystals salts is considered important for the diagnosis of gravel in human kidneys, so it has been in the current study of an integrated program to calculate the study crystals each sample preparation, as it was taken 30 pictures of samples consisting of crystals of calcium oxalate single crystals Biurate ammonium crystals cysteine study (was taking pictures of samples from Nu’man Hospital in Adhamiya, Kamal Al-Samarrai hospital and Health Center in Al-Dhalik), was elected 60 crystal of crystals derived from them by 20 crystallize for each type of the above-mentioned study crystals, and then classified into various groups depending on the different shape and size, it is possible the program application to build a system for medical analysis utilized in the diagnosis of crystals Diuresis laboratories. In this study; the use of artificial neural network and digital image processing to give the results of high-resolution images in the classification of crystals Diuresis depending to the features they contain. It was used 15 hidden layers and was the result of training, 98.3% and 1.7% error and the test result of 100%.


artificial neural network (ANN) , Diuresis crystals, kidney diseases




Ziad M. Abood (1), Azmi Tawfeeq (2) and Abdul-Rahman H. Jassim (2)

Author name

(1) College of Education / Mustansiriyah University (2) College of Education / University of Anbar / Republic of Iraq



Copyright © 2017 by the International Centre for Advancement of Sciences and Technology. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means without prior written permission from the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal.

Article metadata vol. (12) # (2) June 2017

A new technique for solving optimization problems using genetic algorithm

The present study suggested a new modified genetic algorithm technique that is used to solve a sequencing and optimization problems. The presented model is tested using a mathematical problem of first order multi variable equation. The results show that the presented technique can exceed the traditional genetic algorithm system in term of both less calculation time and more accurate outcome. In many cases, the worst scenario of genetic algorithm systems is reaching the solution to local manima/ maxima. The main objective of the paper is to employ two strategies to avoid this problem. First, is to use the Eltisim process, in which, a part of the current population to contribute its values in the next generation of the process. Second, is to use crossover mask, which confine the mate between any two chromosomes in the current population to those that produce the best children of the best fitness in the next generation. Also, Eltisim and crossover procedures will work simultaneously to speech up the processing time and reduce the number of iteration to reach to the optimal solution.


genetic algorithms, Eltisim, local manima/ maxima


Rihab I. Ajel Author name

Dept. of Computer Sciences / College of Sciences / University of Mustansiriya / Republic of Iraq

E- mail:


Effects of treatment modalities by antihypertensive medications on the salivary flow rate and salivary compositions

Hypertension is a common chronic medical condition treated by several classes of medications that causes many oral side effects reflecting their manifestations on the quantity and quality of saliva. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different types of antihypertensive medications (amlodipine, Lisinopril and valsartan) on the salivary

flow rate (SFR) and salivary composition. Eighty subjects of both genders with an age range (41-68) years were enrolled in this study; twenty healthy subjects as a control group and sixty already diagnosed hypertensive patients divided into three groups  each group consist of twenty patients taking amlodipine, Lisinopril and valsartan respectively. Results showed that the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium and chloride were significant differences in hypertensive patients under medication compared to healthy subjects except for those taken lisinopril showed non-significant differences in salivary magnesium and chloride. The SFR was significantly lower in patients taken amlodipine and lisinopril compared to healthy control, while there was no significant reduction in patients taken valsartan. The present study concluded more pronounced effect on salivary composition by amlodipine, lisinopril and valsartan. There is a pronounced reduction in the SFR by amlodipine and lisinopril.

Hypertension, saliva, dry mouth, antihypertensive drugs Keywords


Ahmed O. Mnati and Ban F. Al-Drobie

Author name

Dept. of Oral Diagnosis / College of Dentistry / University of Baghdad / Republic of Iraq

E –mail:


Detection of the level of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in breast cancer patients

Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1) has attracted interest in cancer research, owing to its role in tumor progression. The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 MMP1in human breast cancer women patients by immunohistochemical technique. Thirty-one breast cancer patients were investigated in this study, six patients were below forty years (19.37%), 23 patients (41.93%) were between (4049) years, 4 patients (12.90%) were between (50-59) years old and 8 patients (25.8%) were above (60) years old. Immuno-histochemical parameter was performed, with specific antibodies against, MMP-1. The results indicated that expression was related to tumor size, histological grade and regarding the malignant lesions. matrix metalloproteinase-1 MMP1 is expressed in the cytoplasm of the cells. Negative expression scored (0) were observed in 25 out of 31 samples (48.3%), while score (+) found in 5 out of 31 samples (16.12%), score (++) found in 2 out of 31 samples (6.4%) and score (+++) found in 9 out of 31 samples (29%). While the benign breast lesions revealed positive expression in (5.26%) of lesions. The study concludes that the Breast carcinomas in present work indicated overexpression strong by the MMP1 marker.

breast carcinoma, matrix metalloproteinase-1 MMP1, Immunohistochemical staining, Iraqi women patients Keywords
Muna A. Abdullah Author name

College of Dentistry / University of Tikrit / Republic of Iraq

E –mail:


Immuno-histochemical study of breast cancer in Iraqi women measured by level of matrix metalloproteinase-7

Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease and is considered the most common cancer of women worldwide. In Iraq, BC incidence was increased, therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the immune-histochemical expression parameters for the BC cases using (IHC) technique. All data related to the studied formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cases were recorded for studying the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7. The mean value of age of the Iraqi breast cancer patients in this study were 49.38 ±8.29 years old; ranging from 26-79 years old. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 depending on the scoring system used for the MMP-7, two parameters were dependent; the intensity of the staining of the cytoplasm and the percentage of the tumor giving positive expression. The intensity of the cytoplasm of the stained cells was negative if there is no expression. The IHC study for the MMP-7 expression of the revealed that MMP-7, positive expression was found in 26 (47.3%) out of 55 cases, while 29 cases were not expressed or negative cases. In the 15 benign cases, 3 (20%) were positively expressed, but the positivity was weak and in a low percentage. The results revealed that the percentage of the MMP-7 expression were higher (P= 0.01). Thus, there was a significant difference in the immunoexpression of MMP-7 between the malignant and the benign cases used as control cases.

MMP-7, BC, Immunohistochemistry Keywords
Nagham H. Ali Author name

College of Dentistry / University of Tikrit / Republic of Iraq




Significance of family education and diabetes mellitus morbidities in Diyala province, Iraq

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases with high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. High blood sugar symptoms include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. Untreated diabetes leads to many complications. To minimize the risk of developing complications it is important to provide appropriately child and young person sufficient care and good metabolic control is maintained. To live with diabetes it requires extensive self-care and knowledge. The present study aimed to find out the role of family and parental educational knowledge, practice and attitude in controlling and managing diabetes mellitus morbidities in Diyala province of Iraq. The study was an observational and done in the endocrinology clinic of Al-Batool Teaching Maternity Hospital in Diyala province of Iraq between June 2014 to February 2015. The variables included were knowledge, attitude and practice levels as well as demographic information such as age, date of diagnosis, duration of DM, family history of DM, number of affected siblings, parents level of education, school health, type of treatment, compliance of treatment and complication of treatment of DM. A total of 100 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) were represented of male (53%) and female (47%) ,age from (1-20) years ,mean age 10.5 . All patients lived in Diyala and had type 1 DM and all on insulin injection. Diabetes duration from (1-15) years, mean diabetes duration was (8) ,diabetes duration <5 years (60 %) and >5 years (40%) . In our study having family history of diabetes about (26% , male/female 14/12) ,6 cases from mother, 6 from father ,6 from uncle and 7 from grandmother and grandfather. A clear and well defined guidelines and materials for diabetes education and management adapted to the socioeconomic context, culture and education levels of population which especially required in developing countries, formal education about the importance of family involvement in self-management behaviors could positively affect individual diabetes self-management outcomes.


Diabetes mellitus (DM), self-management behaviors, family education Keywords



Kareem A. Obaid  (1) and  Ammar A. Mohammed Al- Shammary (2)

Author name

(1) Dept. of Pediatrics / College of Medicine / University of Diyala (2) Medical Dept. / Baquobah Teaching Hospital / Republic of Iraq

E –mail:



Identification of ephemerovirus species in clinically infected cattle in Basra, Southern Iraq

Although clinical cases of bovine ephemeral fever are usually attributed to Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), at least two other related viruses, kotonkon virus (KOTV; an ephemerovirus) and Fukuoka virus (FUKAV; an unassigned rhabdovirus), can cause similar clinical signs. This is the first study in Basra, southern Iraq that aimed to identify ephemerovirus species in cattle. The study was conducted on 96 cases of cattle (36 male and 60 female) suspected to be infected with BEF based on the characteristic clinical signs. Blood samples were collected from the cattle and processed for RT-PCR to amplify the polymerase (L) gene of BEFV, KOTV, and FUKAV by using a set of universal primer. Sixty eight samples (25 male and 43 female) were positive by RT-PCR. Animals with severe signs such as depression, recumbence, and fever showed the highest percentages of positive PCR results. Sequencing results showed identical sequences between all samples, and blast analysis revealed that BEFV has been the only virus species in Basra province, southern Iraq.

bovine ephemeral fever, Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), kotonkon virus (KOTV), Fukuoka virus (FUKAV), RT-PCR Keywords


Hazim T. Al-Thwainy, Firas T. Mansour and Tamadhir A.K. Al-Hamed

Author name

College of Veterinary Medicine / University of Basra / Republic of Iraq

E –mail:


The role of bio- resistance in sensitivity of strawberry Kaiser’s samling plants infected
by fungi Fusarium oxysporum


Symptoms of the disease in the vegetative Parts of the plants of  strawberry Kaiser’s samling treated with fungus F. oxysporum included pale and yellowing starts from the edge of the leaf followed by the blight of the edges of the leaves spread to cover the whole leaf, then leaves was die, in severe cases and may appear symptoms of strengthening as the veins appeared in dark colors compared with the other parts of the leaf that suffer from yellowing, and the result of infection of leaves decreased efficiency in photosynthesis and control of the mechanism of opening and closing the gaps, which led to curvature to the top, and can be infected all leaves causing the death of the plant as a result of the destruction of the vegetative Part, or may suffer some of  leaves cause a decrease in the number of leaves and leaflets. The pathological symptoms of the vegetative parts are the result of the root infection F. oxysporum. The symptoms of rotting on the roots, was indicated  by blacking of all of roots  area which caused the death of the plant in the end and longitudinal section of the crown showed a dark brown color as a result of infection. The results showed improved vegetative growth in the treatment with F. oxysporum in addition to the three biological agents fungal, bacterial and Azadarachtin compared with the treatment of fungi alone, as well as treatment with sterile soil with formalin and treatment of untreated soil. Adding of the three biological agents fungal, bacterial and Azadarachtin to F. oxysporum gave a significant reduction in pathogenicity as compared with the fungus alone, the best was the addition of the biological agents Trichoerma viride to F. oxysporum fungi, where the percentage of the pathogenicity was 41.98% In the first reading, the decrease in the pathogenicity in the second reading was 36.56% compared with the treatment of fungi F. oxysporum alone and pathogenicity was78.32% in the first reading increased the ratio in the second reading 87.15%, as well as the treatment of untreated soil which  was 75.72% in the first reading and 82.15% in the second reading.

Fusarium oxysporum, bio- resistance, strawberry Kaiser’s Keywords


Hadeel A. Al-Ameri

Author name


Dept. of Biology / College of Sciences / University of Mosul / Republic of Iraq



The role of bio-resistance in the quantitative estimation for growth regulator ABA in Strawberry plant Kaiser’s infected by fungi Fusarium oxysporum

The results of quantitative estimation of growth regulators ABA technology High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in the treated plants for Variety strawberry Kaiser’s varied results depending on the variation of treatments, as the decreased level of the growth regulators ABA in infected plants artificially with fungi F. oxysporum  thoughtful treatment resistance fungal, bacterial and Azadarachtin  bio-control, compared to the non -treatment plants and experimental fungi infected with fungi , the highest concentration of the growth regulator ABA 1038.562 ng /g wet weight in plants treatment by fungus F. oxysporum alone and less concentration was 187.838 ng /g wet weight in the plants treated with fungal bio-control  according of control  witch is unsterilized soil concentration of the growth regulator ABA in it was 986.573 ng /g wet weight.

Fusarium oxysporum, growth regulator ABA, strawberry Kaiser’s Keywords

Nadeem A. Ramadan and Hadeel A. Ameri


Author name

Dept. of Biology/ College of Sciences / University of Mosul / Republic of Iraq



Role of selenium in tolerance of broad bean plant Vicia faba L. to salinity stress


An experiment was conducted by using pots in the botanical garden, College of Education Ibn Al-Haitham, University of Baghdad, during the growing season 2015-2016 . The experiment aimed to study the effect of exposition broad bean plant Viciafaba L. to salinity stress using sodium chloride concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150) mM.L-1 and spraying vegetative part with Selenium (0 ,10 ,20) mg.L-1 and interactions for both factors on some plants morphological and physiological parameters. Results indicated that the increase of Sodium chloride concentrations caused significant decreases in plantes growth parameters studied, as well as there were significant increases in the same growth parameters after spraying with selenium. Results for the interactions for both factors indicated that the concentration 10mg.L-1 Selenium minimzed the adverse effect of 150 mM.l-1 Sodium chloride and gave the best values for No. of branches.plant-1 , stem diameter, dry weight, absolute growth rate, the relative growth rate, total chlorophyll content, while the interaction of concentration 20 mg.L-1 seleniumand 150 mM.l-1 sodium chloride gave lower decline in the activity of enzymes peroxidase and Superoxide dismutase.

Vicia faba L, Selenium, salinity stress Keywords
Amal G. M. Al- Kazzaz, Rahaf W. M. Atarbashi, Eman H. H. Al-hayani and Suhad S. Yahya Author name
Dept. of Biology / College of Education for Pure Sciences – Ibn Al- Haitham / University of Baghdad / Republic of Iraq Affiliation

Antifungal effect of some fertilizer compounds containing trace elements and garlic extract on the pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi.) Goid

This study was carried out in the laboratory of plant pathology / Plant Protection Researches Department, State board of Agricultural Researches, baghdad to find out the impact of Antifungal effects of some fertilizer compounds containing trace elements such as aqueous ferrous sulfate and aqueous copper  sulfate and aqueous Zinc sulfate with garlic extract against the pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi.) Goid, as well as its influence on environment as environmentally friendly materials. The results showed that those compounds have a disincentive uneven impact on the radial growth of fungus M. phaseolina, it observed that amount of inhibition for each of ferrous sulfate, copper sulfate, zinc sulfate and garlic extract at a concentration of 1000 ppm was 73.61%, 80.28%, 75.10% and 66.66% respectively. Furthermore, those compounds show an inhibitory effect on the production of sclerotia of this fungus and consequently minimize their numbers. These compounds have blocked the production of sclerotia at 1000 ppm, while the number of sclerotia in garlic extract was 6.5 under low power field. Another effect of these compounds was on the fungal vigour, it was observed that as the fungal vigour decreased with increasing the concentration at 1000 ppm. When treating the fungus with ferrous sulfate and garlic extract, the fungus vigour was 1.52 and 1.74 respectively. While in the control treatment was 4.59.  Similarly , copper  sulfate and zinc sulfate treatments resulted in a significant reduction in fungus vigour , the observed vigour was 0.275 and 1.460 , respectively , while the vigour of fungus in the control treatment was 3.38 . Finally, these compounds and the garlic extract treatments did not show any adverse effect on the germination of sunflower seeds.

Macrophomina phaseolina, Keywords
Saadaldin Shamsaldin Saadaldin,  Alhan H. Sheet  and  Ahmed R. Nasir Author name

Dept. of Plant Protection / Directorate of Agricultural Research / Baghdad /Republic of Iraq



Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of micro amounts of paracetamol, guafenesin, bromhexine hydrochloride and chlorpheniramine maleate in their quaternary components pharmaceutical form


An innovate, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method was created for simultaneous determination of micro amounts of Paracetamol (PAR), Guafenesin (GUA), Bromhexine Hydrochloride (BHH) and Chlorpheniramine Maleate (CPAM) in quaternary components of a medicine used in common cold medications (tablets). There had been notice that no analytical method was applied before for determination of these quaternary components simultaneously. The method was based on the first (D1), second (D2), third (D3) and fourth (D4) derivatives of spectra depending on the peak to base line, peak to zero crossing and peak area which are proportioned with the concentration of each component. Rec%, RSD%, LOD and LOQ were closed around (100%,), (1.8123-1.9876), (0.5991-2.7243) and (1.9970-9.0810) respectively for all orders of derivatives. The method was successfully applied for determination of four components in pure and marketing forms.

Simultaneous spectrophotometric, Paracetamol (PAR), Guafenesin (GUA), Bromhexine Hydrochloride (BHH) and Chlorpheniramine Maleate (CPAM) Keywords


Khalaf F. AL-Samarrai


Author name
Dept. of Chemistry / College of Education /University of Samarra / Republic of  Iraq Affiliation

Copyright © 2017 by the International Centre for Advancement of Sciences and Technology. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means without prior written permission from the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal.

Article metadata vol. (12) # (3) September 2017

The state of diabetic control in a sample from Kirkuk city


Sanctions on Iraq during the years 1991-2003 impacted the community in different ways. The aim of the study was to describe the state of control of a sample of diabetic patients in the Kirkuk city, Iraq according to the criteria of American Diabetic Association and compare with that in the advanced countries. By using the figures from the DCCT study (Diabetic control and complication trail), we roughly estimated the burden in those patients in the future. A cross-sectional study during daily routine care giving to randomly selected diabetic patients from inpatients and outpatients from two governmental hospitals (Kirkuk General Hospital, Azadi Teaching Hospital) and a private clinic over a period of four months, May 2000 to August 2000. Fasting blood sugar, random blood sugar, HbA1c and fasting lipid profile were taken as well as other biochemical and physical examination.  Obesity presented at a percent of 28 %. Level of glycemic control was low; only 10 % of the studied were below 7% HbA1c.  Raised low density lipoprotein above 100 mg/dl found in more than 47%, triglyceride raised more than 150 mg/dl found in around 39%. Low level of high density lipoproteins of less than 40 mg/dl was found in 39% in males and lower than 50 mg/dl found in 72% in females. This makes the direction of the efforts of local medical authorities toward diabetic patients a necessity.


HbA1c, embargo, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, obesity Keywords
Nezar A. Hasani (1) and Nihad A.J. Jalal (2) Author name

(1) Kirkuk General Hospital (2) Al- Qalam College / Kirkuk  / Republic of Iraq

E- mail:


Efficacy of antimicrobial preservatives in pharmaceutical dosage forms during shelf life


The different pharmaceutical dosage form may have exposed to microorganisms during manufacturing, especially non-sterile dosage forms such as creams, lotions, eye drops, capsule, gel and tablets. The goal of the current study was to investigate the spoilage of none-sterile pharmaceutical dosage form and the efficacy of preservatives during shelf-live and after the expiry date. One hundred and three samples of different pharmaceuticals dosage forms purchased randomly from different pharmacies in Amman, Jordan. Two culture media were used; Soybean-casein Digest agar (SCD) and Sabouraud Dextrose agar (SDA) medium to excluded aerobic, mold and yeast microorganisms respectively.  Bioburden test carried out according to USP chapters 61 and 62 to determine the microbial limits. The antimicrobial effectiveness test was used to estimate the preservatives efficacy according to guideline USP chapter 51. Microbial identification was done depending on two methods; phenotypic characterization and Remel RapID TM systems. Out of 103 various dosage forms (Tablets, capsules, syrups, eye drops, Gels and cream), 61 samples contained microbial limits range between 1X102 – 8X102 CFU/ml (The acceptable microbial limits must be less than 100CFU/ml). Objectionable organisms like; Pseudomonas aeroginosa, E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, Salmonella species and C.kursi were detected. Most expired tablets and capsules dosage form, which does not contain preservatives, were contaminated with microorganisms higher than acceptable microbial level limits, in contrast to the non-expired tablets and capsule that contain a low level of microorganisms at an acceptable value. Samples do not contain a preservative that shows a high level of microbial contamination, in the other hand expired syrup that contains preservative were contaminated too. Most eyes drop samples that contain benzalkonium chloride (BKC) as a preservative that does not have the ability to inhibit microorganisms. All samples (expired or not) contains BKC or Cetyl pyridiniumchloride(CPC) were found to harbor a high level of microorganisms, where are samples contains butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and Methyl paraben (MP) were inhibited the growth of microorganisms during shelf-life. Cream samples that contain two kinds of preservatives, have acceptable microbial limits in nearly manufactured samples and have high microbial limits in expired samples.  On other hands, 9 ointment samples that do not contain preservative were contaminated with high level of microorganisms when they are expired. This study concluded that the preservatives added to non-sterile pharmaceutical forms must be rechecked during the shelf-life of the drug.

non-sterile pharmaceutical form, shelf-life, microbial limit, anti-microbial effectiveness test Keywords
Randa S. Al-Aswad (1) and Abdul Jabbar N. Al-Shammari (2) Author name
Dept. of Microbiology / College of Pharmacy/ Al-Zawya University / Libya (2) Dept. of Medical Laboratory Sciences / Faculty of Sciences / Al-Balqa’ Applied University / Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan E –mail: Affiliation

Phenotypic investigation of some pathogenic characters in Shigella isolates


Infections by Shigella species are important causes of intestinal diarrhea in developing countries. Shigella causes diseases ranging from diarrhea to bacillary dysentery. The current study was conducted to investigate some pathogenic characters performed by shigella isolates such as type-1 fimbriae and their ability to adhere to the human buccal cavity epithelial cells. Three Shigella local isolates –S.flexneri and S.sonni– were selected to study the presence of fimbriae and attachment to epithelial cells. It was observed that only S.flexneria-1 possess type-1 fimbriae and it had higher adhesion rate. Plasmid responsible for the invasion was detected by Congo red binding for both species- S.flexneri and S.sonnei-. Enzymatic activities of isolates were also studied. The results revealed that the isolates cannot produce lipase, lecithinase, and DNase, while it produces Beta -lactamase and siderophores.  This study concluded the importance of shigellosis for further studies.

Shigella, phenotypic character Keywords
Hager A. Shareef and Sara S. Ghareeb Author name
Dept. of Biology / College of Education for Pure Sciences / University of Kirkuk / Republic of Iraq Affiliation

Resistance of fresh Gram-negative isolates to beta lactam antibacterial from Kirkuk hospitals

Beta-lactam antibacterial agents contain a Beta-lactam ring in its structure, which responsible for inhibiting the peptidoglycan layer in bacterial cell wall. Some Gram-negative bacteria were susceptible, while others were resistant. The aim of this study was to investigate newly Gram-negative isolates isolated in recent years and was resistant to Beta-lactam antibiotics. One hundred and eighty-eight samples were collected from fresh specimens of urine, faces and blood and cultured on MacConkey Agar. Bacterial colonies were identified according to convential methods and by API -20E. Thirteen beta lactam antibiotics discs were used to determine the susceptibility or resistance. Results shows that 29 E.coli , 24 klebsiell spp , 10 proteus spp , and (8) pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified. The results showed appearance of absolute multiple antibiotics resistance to a number of beta lactam antibiotics whereas absolute sensitivity appeared to some beta lactam antibiotics, E.coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed absolute sensitivity to Meropenem , Klebsiella oxytoca and  Proteus spp showed absolute sensitivity to Meropenem and Imipenem while pseudomonas aeruginosa showed absolute sensitivity to Imipenem and Ceftazidim .The results showed that the two carbapenemes (Meropenem and Imipenem)  and Ceftazidime were the beast Beta lactam antibiotics used in  this study.


Gram-negative isolates, Resistance, beta lactam, Kirkuk Keywords
Salah S. Zain Al-Abdeen (1) Nada E. Abd Al-Wahab (2) and Husain F. Hassan Author name
Dept. of Biology/ College of Education for Pure Sciences / University of Kirkuk (2)  Dept. of  Biology/ College of  Sciences  / University of  Kirkuk / Republic of  Iraq Affiliation

Response of Mathiola Mathiola incana L. to spraying with Fenugreek seed extract (Trigonellafoenum- graecum   L.) and Boric acid in growth and flowering parameters

An experiment was conducted at the nursery of faculty of agriculture, University of Kufa, during the growing season 2012 – 2013 to study the effect of spraying Fenugreek seed extract (Trigonellafoenum- graecum   L.)  and Boric acid on growth and flowering parameters of Mathiola . Experiment was adopted a Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates: First three concentrations of Fenugreek seed extract i. e. ( 0 , 2 and 4) ml.L-1. Second three concentrations of Boric acid H3PO4 i.e. (0 , 15 and 30) mg.L-1. Means were compared by using Least Significant Differences (L.S.D) test at a probability of 0.05.  Results showed that spraying Fenugreek seed extract at a concentration 4 ml.L-1 or Boric at a concentration 30mg.L-1 increased significantly the growth parameters (plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoots dry weight, content of total chlorophyll and total soluble carbohydrates in leaves, number of main roots, roots dry weight). Flowering parameters(number of inflorescence and floret per inflorescence, diameter of floret, inflorescence stalk length and floret dry weight compared to control treatment  which gave the least values. Results also showed that: spraying with liquorice roots extract at 4 ml.l-1 and vitamin C at 50 mg.l-1 increased significantly vegetative and roots growth parameters (plant height, number of leaves, shoots dry weight, total content of chlorophyll, soluble carbohydrates, number of main roots and roots dry weight) and flowering parameters:  number of inflorescence per plant to 8.33 and floret per inflorescence to 43.67 and floret diameters to 2.73 and inflorescence stalk diameter to 31.17cm and florets dry weight to 2.74, compared to the control which gave the lowest vales (3.00 inflorescence. plant-1, 23.33 floret. inflorescence-1, 1.13cm  and 1.22gm).


Mathiola Mathiola incana L, Fenugreek seed extract Keywords
Mushtaq T. H. Al- Zurfi (1) , Jamal A. Abbass (1), Ameer Abdul Akowa Hassan (2) and Mustafa M. Ibrahim Author name
Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape Design /Faculty of Agriculture /  University of Kufa  (2) Faculty of Physical Planning / University of Kufa  / Republic of  Iraq Affiliation

Preparation and characterization of copper (II) complexes with mixed ligands, laser irradiation and their antibacterial and antifungal activities


The ligands isatinazine (IAH2), benzilthiosemicarbazonebenzelidene (BtscbH), benzilthiosemi-carbazone-orthohydroxybenzelidene (BtscoH2) ,Benzilthiosemicarbazone-meta-hydroxybenzelidene (BtscmH2), Benzilthiosemicarbazone-parahydroxybenzelidene (BtscpH2), and their new copper (II) complexes have been prepared using classical and microwave heating methods. The compounds have been characterized using analytical and physical methods. The effect of laser have been studied on solid ligands and complexes. The biological activity of the ligands and all the complexes have been evaluated by agar plate diffusion techniques against pathogenic bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli. The above ligands formed ionic complexes having general formulae [Cu(IAH2)(LHi)]CO3 in neutral (or slightly acidic) medium. whereas, neutral complexes of the general formula [Cu(IAH)(LHi-1)] in basic medium have been resulted {where LHi=BtscbH, BtscoH2, BtscmH2 or BtscpH2 ligands; LHi-1= deprotonated LHi ligand; IAH= deprotonated IAH2 ligand}. Accordingly, hexacoordinated mononuclear complexes have been investigated by this study and having distorted octahedral geometries. No laser effect have been observed on all compounds through the results of melting or decomposition points, conductivity and electronic spectra, this means that  all the compounds  were stable and were not affected by this kind of radiation. The ligands IAH2, BtscbH, BtscmH2 and the complexes (3-8, 11, 12, 14, and 15), were found to have antibactial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. whereas, the ligands IAH2 and BtscmH2 were found to have antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, while the complex (6) was found to have antibacterial activity against pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the ligands and compounds have been screened for antifungal activity in vitro against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. No effects have been observed.

antibacterial and antifungal, copper (II) complexes, laser irradiation Keywords

Rana R. A. Al- Bustani  and  Zuhoor F. D. Al- Taei


Author name

Dept. of Chemistry/ College of Education for Pure Sciences/ University of Mosul /Republic of Iraq



Copyright © 2017 by the International Centre for Advancement of Sciences and Technology. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means without prior written permission from the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal.

Article metadata vol. (12) # (4) December 2017

A comparative study of stem anatomy for some Carex L. and Bolboschoneus (Ascherson) Palla (Cyperaceae) species in Iraq

The stem anatomies of five species belonging to different genus were studied to ascertain whether differences in anatomy may be found among the species, supporting morphological differences taxonomically. These species were Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla., B. tuberosus (Desf.) Hadac., Carex distans L., C.divisa Huds. and C.hordeistichos Vill. They were investigated by using hand cutting and safranin staining. In transverse sections, stems of all the studied species were triangular except for C.hordeistichos which was ovate shape. The ground tissue is net-like with numerous air cavity in B. tuberosus, other species have no air cavity except C.hordeistichos which has cavities shown between the vascular bundles. Crystals of druses and prismatic types were observed only in Carex distans and C.divisa.

Cyperaceae, Bolboschoenus maritimus, Bolboschoenus. tuberosus, Carex distans, Carex divisa, Carex hordeistichos, air cavities Keywords
Zubaidah A.L. Ismail Author name

College of Education / Iraqia University / Republic of Iraq

E- mail:


Study the expression of syndecan-1 protein in oral lichen planus (OLP) cases


The aim of the study was to estimate expression of syndecan-1 protein in the oral lichen planus (OLP) iraqi cases patients. thirty (30) patients with histologically confirmed OLP diagnosed from January 2016 were followed-up to the end of February 2017. The standardized incidence ratio.  was calculated for the entire cohort and specific for gender, type of OLP. The relative risk During the follow-up period, expression of syndecan-1 protein estimated using immunohistochemichal teqnique. Positive syndecan-1protein immunostaining was detected as brown cytoplasmic staining of the cells. Positivee IHC expression was found in all oral lichen planus (OLP) cases as illustrated that (3) casese(10.0%) showedeweak positive expression, (9) cases (30.0%) showed moderate positive expression, and (18) casese (60.0%)showed strong positive expression. In present study: (63.3%) (19 cases) of oral lichen planus (OLP) casese were above 50  years old with ane age ranged (32-75)yearseeand meane age (53.5). Regarding the sex distribution of the study samples 17 cases (56.7%) were malese and 13casese (43.3%) were femalese. with a male/female aboute1.3:1. Regarding site distribution of the oral lichen planus (OLP), the tongue represented the most predominant site.

syndecan-1 protein, OLP, immunohistochemistry Keywords
Muhanad L.H. Al-Shami(1), Amir A. Majeed, Suzan A. Al-Nakeeb (2) and Nagham H. Ali (3) Author name

(1) Dept. of Dentistry / Dijlah University College  (2) Kirkuk Technical Institute/  Northern Technical University (3) College of Dentistry/ University of Tikrit Republic of Iraq

E –mail:


Immuno-histochemical study of transforming growth factor Beta TGF- β in fibroadenoma and malignant breast cancer sections


Immuno-histochemical is a technique based on work accomplished with antibodies that recognize the target protein and the results expressed by staining. When the specify of antibodies are strong, the specific antibody will bind only to the target of interest in the cells tissue section. Expression of TGF-β was positively appeared in the nucleus of the cells and easily detected by different techniques spatially IHC. Depending on the scoring system used for the TGF-β, the expression based on different parameters; the first: intensity of the staining of the nucleus and the second based on a percentage of the tumor cells are given positive expression. The intensity of the cytoplasm of the stained cells will be negative if there is no expression. The IHC study for the TGF-β expression of the revealed that TGF-Β, positive expression was found in 21 (67.7%) out of 31 cases, while 10 (32.2%) cases were not expressed or negative cases. In the 19 Fibroadenoma cases, 6 (31.5%) were positively expressed, while 13 (68.4%) cases were not expressed, so there was a clear strong difference based on the probability value  (Pvalue P <0.001) between the expression of TGF-β in the malignant and the benign cases used as cases for comparison Malignant Breast Cancer studied  statically the results show there was a high patent relationship  between Malignant Breast Cancer sections  and TGF-Β  expression (p 0.001), and also no significant correlation between TGF-Β  expression and fibroadenoma section (p 0.001).


TGF-Β, Breast Cancer, Immunohistochemistry


Muna A. Abdulla (1) and Dina N. Tawfeeq (2) Author name

College of Dentistry (2) College of Medicine / University of Tikrit / Republic of Iraq



Histological and histochemical study of adrenal gland in local Iraqi coats (Capra Aegagrus)


The adrenal glands are complex endocrine glands regulating some physiological and functional process in the body. the present study was conducted on the 10 healthy from two sex of local Iraqi Goats. The adrenal glands were collected and fixed by 1o% neutrat formalin the section of 3-5mm thicknesses were stained by Hematoxylin and Eosine stain (H&E), periodic acid Schiff stain, Mallory phosphogunstic hematoxylin method and alcin blue 25-priodic acid Schiff for mucosubstance and polysaccharide. Histological study showed the adrenal glands surround by collagen fibers connective tissue capsule also the gland composed of two parts the cortex are represent large parts which contain three zone, glomerula , fasiculata and reticular zone. The medulla is small part consist of  two cellular zone around the center vein also the adrenal medulla contain the multi blood sinusoidal which present among cells. Histochmical study investigated present collagen fibers in capsule of adrenal gland also in the peranchyma when stained by Mallory phosphogunstic  hematoxylin method. the study observed positive reaction for distribution charbohydrats in the all parts of gland also appeared present polysccharide on mucosubstain in the parts of glands.


adrenal gland, Mallory phosphogunstic  hematoxylin, local goats Keywords
Nadhem A. Shehan (1), Haifa A. Hussein (1) and Shorroq S. Hussein (2) Author name

(1) Dept. of Anatomy and Histology / College of Veterinary Medicine / University of Basra (2) Dept. of Community Health / Technical Institute in Nasryhia / South Technical University / Republic of Iraq E-mail:



Study concentrations of some heavy metals in three soil samples from North Iraq


Six soil Samples were selected and divided into two groups. First group included three samples polluted by crude oil, and second group of soil collected from study sites. To study concentrations of some heavy metals  in polluted and un polluted soil The Sample prepared to determine the fohowea Standard method using (AAS) (Atomic Absorption spectroscopy) .The rest showed high  concentration of pb in and site no Kasic area with conenlration reached (158.74) pmm compare with other sites under study while recodel (Li) high concentration all of polluted sites compared with in un polluted soil for all ampullated sites under study’s statistical analysis showed significant differences between the concentrations of heavy metals and sites.

heavy metals, soil, North Iraq Keywords
Yassein H. Owaied (1) and Afrah T. Khalaf Author name
(1)Dept. of Biology / College of Education for Women / University of Tikrit (2) Dept. of Biology / College of Education / University of Samarra / Republic of Iraq Affiliation

Changes in some physiological characteristics of leaves of seven trees species in Baghdad City in response to air pollution


The concentration of different photosynthesis dyes chlorophylls and carotenes and proline amino acid were estimated in the leaves of seven species of trees exposed to air pollution caused by vehicle exhaust emissions and other sources in Baghdad City. These seven genera are of economic, environmental and aesthetic importance;     (Olea europaea L.) , (Ziziphus spina-Christi (L.) Desf.) , (Conocarpus lancifolius, Engl) , (Albizia lebbeck L. Benth ), (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Dehnh ), (Clerodendron inermis (L.) Gaerth) and ( Dodonaea viscosa Jacq). The results of the present study showed that the measured air pollutants; SO2, NO2 ,TSP and RSPM recorded high values in the contaminated sites when compared with their values in control site. The results also showed a clear variation of the physiological parameters measured values in the selected tree samples between the contaminated sites and control site, giving evidence that some of these trees have tolerance potential to air pollution such as O. europaea , C. lancifolius and  A. lebbeck , unlike  Z. spina-christi , E. camaldulensisas , C. inermis and D. viscosa  that can be described as sensitive to air pollution, because they recorded lower physiological values in contaminated sites than control site.

air pollution, physiological characteristics,leaves Keywords
Israa M. Jasim (1), Abdul-Hameed M. J. Al- Obaidy (2) and Abdul- Rahman Al- Kubaisi (1) Author name
Dept. of Biology/ College of Sciences for Women / University of Baghdad (2) Environmental Research Centre / University of Technology/ Baghdad / Republic of Iraq Affiliation

Copyright © 2017 by the International Centre for Advancement of Sciences and Technology. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means without prior written permission from the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal.